Wednesday, January 15, 2020

General Categories of Sexual Harassment

As more and more women have entered the workforce in the last several decades, there has been a heightened awareness of the problem of sexual harassment. The recent spate of successful employee litigation in this area, combined with tan extension of an employer†s liability for acts of its supervisors and often its rank-and-file employees, has created an area of serious concern to employers. This is particularly so given the heightened awareness to the issue inherent in the U.S. Supreme Court confirmation hearing of Justice Clarence Thomas. It is important for supervisor and manager to be familiar with the laws of sexual harassment. Their knowledge and actions will not only legally bind the company, but may also make themselves personally liable for violation the law. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which enforces federal prohibition against sexual harassment, defines sexual harassment as â€Å"unwelcome sexual advances, request for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.† The California Fair Employment and Housing Commission (FEHC), which enforces state law, further defines sexual harassment to include: Verbal harassment, such as epithets, derogatory comments or slurs; Physical harassment, such as assault or physical interference with movement or work; and Visual harassment, such as derogatory cartoons, drawings or posters. Two General Categories of Sexual Harassment Over the years, the courts have separated sexual harassment into tow main categories: 1. â€Å"Quid pro quo† occurs when a supervisor or manager conditions an employment benefit or continuing employment on the employees acquiescence in the form of sexual behavior. 2. â€Å"Hostile† or â€Å"offensive† work environment sexual harassment. No employment benefits need be lost or gained, and this type of harassment may be engaged in not only by management, but also by coworkers or persons who are not even employed by the employer. An offensive work environment occurs where sexual jokes, suggestive remarks, cartoons, physical interference with movement such as blocking or following, and sexually derogatory comments create an offensive working environment. In determining when conduct is unwelcome, it†s important to determine is whether the victim indicated by his/her conduct that the sexual advance or conduct were unwelcome, not whether any participation was voluntary. The victim†s conduct may be totally passive, such as not laughing at sexual jokes. In determining whether a work environment is hostile, the conduct must be sufficiently severe and pervasive so as to alter the condition of the employee†s employment. Trivial or merely annoying conduct is not enough. A pattern of offensive conduct is generally required also. Unless severe, a single incident or isolated incident of sexual conduct or remarks will not be sufficient to show environmental harassment. Finally, the conduct will be evaluated from the objective viewpoint of a reasonable person facing the same conditions. The victim†s perspective will be used, not community standards or stereotypes of acceptable behavior. In California, an employer is strictly liable for the sexual harassing conduct of managers and supervisors in both the â€Å"quid pro quo† and â€Å"hostile environment† situation on the common law theory that holds an employer liable for injuries committed by employees during the course of their employment. The assumption is made that if the manager/supervisor did it, then the manager/supervisor knew about it, and therefore the company knew about it. The employer is liable for harassment of an employee by a co-worker and possibly even of non-employees, if the employer knew, or should have known, of such conduct and failed to take immediate and appropriate action. Sexual harassment also may occur where employment benefits are granted because of one employee†s submission to a supervisor†s request for sexual favors, but where other employees equally or better qualified to receive the benefits are denied them. If the employer did not know of the conduct, the FEHC will consider that the employer had notice unless the employer can establish that it took reasonable steps to prevent the harassment from occurring. Such reasonable steps may include having a sexual harassment policy in place, as well as providing sexual harassment training to supervisors and managers. Supervisors, managers, and employees must know and follow the company†s policy against sexual harassment. If a violation of company policy is found, a prompt and effective remedy should be provided to the complaining employee and disciplinary action taken against the harasser. The company can only determine whether company policy was violated. Supervisors and mangers should avoid making any statements or conclusions that illegal sexual harassment has taken place.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Effects of Technology on People Essay - 1182 Words

Does technology affect people or do people affect technology? Technology affects every aspect of our lives, we all use it every day with little thought. People take it for granted, sometimes knowing little about what brought that technology into existence. At the same time older generations have a hard time adopting the new technologies and continue to favor technology they are accustomed. The idea of technology is as old as the human race. To understand technology; first we need a common definition. Technology is anything that makes a task easier for someone or something. There are many different authorities that attempt to answer this question. Quotes, journals, and other various sources lend themselves to the topic of technological†¦show more content†¦Albert Einstein sums up what the technology we have created for ourselves has done to us in a single quote. â€Å"It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity† (Einstein). This one sentence holds many meanings. It means that technology has exceeded what is possible of the human race, that technology has affected us in a way that makes us less human, and that technology has allowed us to reach beyond barriers like language, distance, time, and space. The third artifact to answer my question is a collage. The collage contains images and quotes about technology. During the creation of this collage I realized that technology isn’t just computers or smartphones. It’s anything that has been invented to make the tasks of life easier. Some of the most notable inventions pictured in the collage are: fire (the containment of), simple machines, the steel plow, the steam engine, the airplane, the light bulb, penicillin, the computer, and the internet (Baxter). The main point of the collage is that we increment technology over time, that we affect technology in a way that allows us to progress the abilities of humanity. Another artifact shows how the invention of gunpowder increased Chinese trade and caused the rise and fall of empires and governments. And that a small invention, with seemingly no use at all, contributed to the creation of even greater technology like ammunition and first generationShow MoreRelatedTechnology And Its Effect On People1786 Words   |  8 Pagesthem hear things that would make them want to give up. Technology has the same effect on people. Technology causes people to be drawn to it, to do unimaginable things. Technology even changes the way people think. The people become savages, they feel nothing and think of only themselves and what it is that is changing them. Ray Bradbury suggest the same thing, only he concluded this six decades ago. He predicted the live altering technology we have yet to come out with but have gotten very closeRead MoreMobile Technology And Its Effects On People1485 Words   |  6 PagesThis paper report the main focus is mobile technology. In this specific report mobile technology and its effects on people was discussed. The first portion of the report speaks of an article that supports the advancement of mobile technologies in their children’s lives and the second portion speaks of an article that believe mobile technology should have its limitation or banning it completely in children lives until they become teenagers or young adults. Throughout this paper the advantages andRead MoreFacebook and The Effects on People, Businesses Technology Essay2136 Words   |  9 PagesFacebook as changed the way young people today communicate. With over 800 million users and available in 70 languages Facebook is one of the fastest growing companies. Could Facebook be indeed taking over our lives? The answer for this question will try to be explored in the first part of this essay. It is certainly clear that Facebook has made an effect on how many people communicate. However there could be implications to this. Facebook and the effects on people will be discussed in the first partRead MoreA Theoretical or Practical Perspective Which Sees Technology as Having Independent Effects Upon People and Organisations Is Misguided.2960 Words   |  12 Pages | ‘A theoretical or practical perspective which sees technology as having independent effects upon people and organisations is misguided.’ Introduction Technology has played a vital role in the development of almost every aspect of organizations throughout the 20th Century. The impact of technology has significant effects on the structure, management and functioning of an organization. Technology is more than just hardware, machines or equipment. It is the basis of theRead MoreAnother Look Back, and a Look Ahead1053 Words   |  5 Pagesthe impact technological innovations have had on society? How much did technology influence society a decade ago, and how much does it influence society now? 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Technology has unhealthy effects on manyRead MoreEffects Of Overuse Of Technology On Human Health1253 Words   |  6 PagesEffects of overuse of Technology on Human Health Technology has become a major part of human activities today. People engage in different activities through the use of technology for communication, traveling, and different devices used in every career. Despite the fact that technology has eased the performance of different tasks, it has a detrimental effect on human health. It has an effect on people across all ages and results in health effects such as depression, obesity, brain tumors, musculoskeletalRead MoreThe Effects Of Technology On The Environment955 Words   |  4 PagesWhile it may be evident that technology is altering many aspects of life, increasing amounts of evidence declare that technology benefits us. While the author’s argument makes excellent points, they believe technology is negatively effecting people’s lives. The author demonstrates competence but lacks rigid evidence defending his opinionated reasoning. The written article therefore provides little effect to believing their cause. The author begins their argument by stating information about anRead MoreBenefit Of Technology Essay1023 Words   |  5 PagesDoes technology benefit or hurt humankind as a whole? This is a question that pops up more and more as we continue to advance and integrate technology more into our lives. It is currently pretty clear that we use a substantial amount of technology some would even say to an exaggerated level. You might be thinking to yourself â€Å"what are you talking about, technology is a must it helps us live longer than ever, cure diseases and illnesses and we can even create things only imagined in science fictionRead MoreEffects Of Technology On Society s Society1246 Words   |  5 Pages Effects of Technology on Society Many years ago, historians believe the future would be an amazing technologically advanced place filled with robots and time traveling. But today no one seems to be shocked by all of the advancements (Negative Effects of Technology). The computers are controlling minds, and humans are acting more as robots than citizens. Over the last few decades, there has been a dramatic improvement in the development and use of technology. Workplaces have gone

Monday, December 30, 2019

How Causation Is A Relation Between Events Or States Of...

1. (a) In Chisholm’s paper, â€Å"Human freedom and the self,† Chisholm notes that causation is a relation between events or states of affairs. For example, if the roof in my house cave in during a hurricane- this would be something that was caused by several other events such as the roof being too weak, the rain pressure being too much for the roof to hold, excessive rain, etc. With this term, Chisholm created two other narrower terms to specifically describe the different types of causations. The first causation is transeunt which is when one event or state of affairs causes other events or state of affairs. An example of Transeunt causation is if I threw a piece of paper in a recycling bin my event would be recycling but the â€Å"unknown† event cause by this event would be more oxygen in the world for people to breath in because that paper can be reused instead of having to cut more trees down and â€Å"cutting down† our oxygen. The second type of caus ation would be Immanent causation, which is when an agent (or person) causes an event or state of affairs. An example of Immanent causation is me recycling the paper because I’m the â€Å"agent† who recycled the piece of paper, it wasn’t done by another event. During the paper, Chisholm reflects on two objections and takes his defense on both. The first one being simply a fact of (a) He could have done otherwise means no more nor less than and (b) If he could have chosen to do otherwise, he would have done otherwise. The second objective has aShow MoreRelatedThe Media Of The Oil Spill Of 2010 From China, The United States, And Ireland1690 Words   |  7 Pagesvarious perspectives in coverage. Media coverage is essential is our development and understanding of international affairs. Therefore, the biases in coverage can have drastic effects in our interpretation of world’s news. Countries tend to present their news in a way that favors them and their governmental responses, but coverage of other nations can be telling of their relations. The use of word choice, tone, and even selective use of quotes can have drastic effects on people’s perceptions of theRead MoreAnalysis Of Edith Wharton s Roman Fever 1483 Words   |  6 P ages In Roman Fever, Edith Wharton employs irony to manipulate the reader’s perception of a seemingly innocent conversation between two middle aged women, Alida Slade and Grace Ansley. When reconnecting in Rome, both women reminisce about their past experience there in which secrets first emerged between them. Alida, driven to reconcile the past, attempts to relieve her conscience by confessing that she betrayed and entrapped Grace with a falsified love letter. On the other hand, Grace selectively forgetsRead MoreMccloskey Response Paper2064 Words   |  9 Pagesdesign.    He pointed out the existence of evil in the world that God made.    He also pointed out that it is irrational to live by faith. According to McCloskey, proofs do not necessarily play a vital role in the belief of God.  Ã‚  Page 62 of the article states that most theists do not come to believe in God as a basis for religious belief, but come to religion as a result of other reasons and factors.  Ã‚  However, he feels that as far as proofs serve theists, the three most commonly accepted are the cosmologicalRead MoreUnintended Consequences - Israel from Palestine1297 Words   |  6 PagesHolocaust’s causation in the creation of Israel and generous partition of Palestine is the potential for nations to pity the Jews for their suffering. In truth, Zionism wasn’t offered any gains by the Holocaust. Not only was the genocide irrelevant to the argument of Zionism to the rest of the world, but it also couldn’t be pitied, as it was not yet understood. Overall, the Palestine question – and it was just that: a question regarding Palestine, not Israel – was answered based on the state of eventsRead MoreCause and Effect: The Canadian Rebellions of 1837 and 1838.1698 Words   |  7 PagesThe research in this proposal primarily focuses on the rebellions that took place in both upper and Lower Canada during 1838. The time line of this proposal will incl ude events prior to the actual rebellions as they are significant to the understanding of the causes of these uprisings. In 1837 and 1838, insurrections against the British colonial government arose in Lower and Upper Canada. Moderates hoped to reform the political system, while radicals yearned for a restructuring of both administrationRead MoreEssay about Democratic Peace Theory3056 Words   |  13 Pagesdemocratic peace theory, liberal democratic states have been able to maintain peaceful relations amongst themselves, but are prone to wage war against non-democratic regimes. In order to prove this theory, vast databases have been constructed of historical dyadic relationships between states as well as detailed breakdowns of incidents of inter-state war. The conclusions reached are best shown in the work of Bruce Russett who has argued that alleged wars between democracies (most of which took place inRead MoreEssay on Period 3 Test7186 Words   |  29 Pagesthe most widespread c rop cultivated by slaves in North America? a. Wheat b. Sugar c. Tobacco d. Cotton 3. Following the American Revolution, many Founding Fathers believed which of the following? a. Slavery would gradually disappear in the United States. b. The freeing of slaves should be outlawed. c. Slavery would be the foundation of the American economy. d. Freed slaves deserved government reparations for their suffering. 4. Which of the following was a reference to slavery in the ConstitutionRead More The Bush Administrations Relation With Iraq Prior to Iraqs Invasion of Kuwait4315 Words   |  18 Pages The Bush Administrations Relation With Iraq Prior to Iraqs Invasion of Kuwait Prior to the August 2, 1990 invasion of Kuwait on the part of Iraq, the United States had questionable relations with Iraq dictator, Saddam Hussein, to say the least. In retrospect, which is inherently advantageous as a 20/20 perspective, questions remain unanswered as to whether or not the United States was too appeasing to Saddam Hussein in the years, months, and days leading up to that early August morningRead MoreCrime Mapping : Using Gis And Geographic Information Systems Of University Of Nairobi4473 Words   |  18 Pagesto develop a mapping approach for crime prevention and management in Eldoret metropolis. The study will adopt empirical and descriptive studies with the testing of two hypotheses. The target population of the study will comprises of Police Public Relation Officers (PPRO) and the member of the general public with Eldoret metropolis. The main research instruments to be used in the study are structured questionnaire and interview. The researcher will adopt stratified random sampling to achieve desiredRead More Astrology Essay3475 Words   |  14 Pagestheir position in relation to the earth and each other, against a fixed backcloth of the twelve signs of the zodiac. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There was nothing obscure about these general assumptions. At the beginning of the sixteenth century astrological doctrines were part of the educated man’s picture of the universe and its workings. It was generally accepted that the four elements constituting the sublunary region (earth, air, fire amp; water) were kept in their state of ceaseless transformation

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Critique of Gilgamesh as a King in The Epic of Gilgamesh...

A Critique of Gilgamesh as a King in The Epic of Gilgamesh nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There are some characteristics that most great kings have. All of the great kings did not have all of these characteristics, but they had some of them. Gilgamesh did not have many of these traits. Although he was a powerful king, he was not a great king. He had some good traits, such as being a leader, and fighting evil powers. He tormented his people, oppressed them them, exhausted them in daily life and in combat, and he gave himself the right to sleep with any unmarried woman. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Gilgamesh uses his strength to get anything he wants. He especially uses his power to get women. He â€Å"demands to be first with the bride, the†¦show more content†¦In modern times, he would be arrested and maybe jailed for raping all those women. He uses his strength to do this, until Enkidu tries to stop him from entering the newlywed bride’s home. Enkidu becomes a great friend to Gilgamesh. He lets him know of his destiny to become a hero and famous. He informs him that his destiny is to kill Humbaba, the â€Å"watchman of the forest† who frightens all who explore the depths of the forest.(71) Gilgamesh listens to Enkidu and goes to kill Humbaba. He says, â€Å"I will go first although I am your lord.†(71) This is a good trait of Gilgamesh being a king because he is showing leadership skills and his ability to conquer his fears. Gilgamesh was selfish; leaving his people to find everlasting life. He did not find it, but he d id come across the plant that Utnapishtim told him about. Utnapishtim said, â€Å"There is a plant that grows under the water, it has a prickle like a thorn, like a rose; it will wound your hands, but if you succeed in taking it, then your hands will hold that which restores his lost youth to a man.†(116) Gilgamesh was strong enough to take a piece of the plant, but a serpent stole it from him, so he went back to having nothing. He always wanted to help himself rather than help his people, which is what a king’s job is. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Overall, Gilgamesh is a horrible king. His biggest problem is his selfishness. He uses his godly position to obtain whatever he wants. HisShow MoreRelatedA Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh Essay examples1640 Words   |  7 PagesA Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh There are many differences and critical comparisons that can be drawn between the epics of Beowulf and Gilgamesh. Both are historical poems which shape their respected culture and both have major social, cultural, and political impacts on the development of western civilization literature and writing. Before any analysis is made, it is vital that some kind of a foundation be established so that a further, in-depth exploration of the complex natureRead MoreAnalysis Of The Epic Of Gilgamesh 1284 Words   |  6 PagesPerhaps one of the earliest pieces of literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh is a tale about a Mesopotamian king named Gilgamesh who crudely dominates the natural world surrounding his gleaming society. Juxtaposing Gilgamesh’s godlike stature, Enkidu is a wild beast used to counterbalance the king in a literary sense. The hierarchical dichotomy expressed in the epic has appeared thematically within numerous mediums, including the revered artwork of Jean-Michel Basquiat. Raised in the Lower East Side (LES)Read MoreThe Gilgamesh Of The Epic Of Gilgamesh2459 Words   |  10 Pages The Epic of Gilgamesh consist of narratives in tablets that effectively forwards the ideology of kingship in Mesopotamia through a compilation of themes. Gilgamesh outward appearance was magnificent, but inwardly he was a relentless tyrannical king. The epic makes it clear that he was beautiful, strong, and wise collectively these facts intertwine with him being one-third god and two-third human. Oddly, Gilgamesh never effectively utilized his assets for the betterment of his people; rather he

Friday, December 13, 2019

Efforts To Eradicate Poliomyelitis Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

Through the attempts of the planetary run to eliminate infantile paralysis, infantile paralysis instances have declined worldwide, from 35,251 instances in 1988, to 1449 instances as of 28 October 2005, ( CDC ) . However, confirmed instances of wild infantile paralysis virus continue to be reported from Southern portion of Zimbabwe. This proposal aims to supply a wellness publicity instruction to the people of Gwanda, particularly the political and spiritual leaders who encouraged the boycott of immunization. We will write a custom essay sample on Efforts To Eradicate Poliomyelitis Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now With the encouragement from the leaders the villagers believed that the vaccinum was contaminated by anti-fertility substances, others questioned the focal point on infantile paralysis when rubeolas and malaria were considered more harmful. Some besides distrusted claims about the safety of Western biomedicine. These concerns relate to inquiries about the rightness of perpendicular wellness intercessions, where degrees of everyday immunisation are low. Therefore a community based wellness publicity program after a wellness appraisal demand is done will be produced. Management of alteration theory by Lewin will be used in educating the leaders on infantile paralysis and the importance of immunization. Introduction In 1988, the World Health Assembly voted to implement a run to eliminate infantile paralysis by the terminal of the twelvemonth 2000, following the successful obliteration of variola in 1980 ( Henderson, 1999 ) . However, with 2971 confirmed new infantile paralysis instances worldwide by the terminal of 2000, the deadline was extended to 2004 ( WHO, 2004 ) . Although the figure of infantile paralysis instances has declined well worldwide, from 35,251 instances in 1988 to 1449 instances in 2005 ( 28 October ; WHO, 2005 ) , the end remains elusive. Cases continue to be reported, chiefly in India, Nigeria, Some parts of Zimbabwe, Pakistan, and Afghanistan ( Altman, 2006 ) , although eruptions in Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, and Sudan in 2004 ( CDC, 2005, p. 874 ) , and in Indonesia and Yemen in 2005 ( McNeil ( 2005a ) and McNeil ( 2005c ) ) , which were once polio free, have besides been reported. This enterprise aims to better the wellness of disadvantaged kids in a province in Zimbabwe, through a wellness publicity programme. The proposal is aiming kids under the age of 5 old ages this will enable unsusceptibility for kids when turning up. The community spiritual and political leaders brought the state to a standstill by boycotting polio immunization among their community, claiming that it was infected with assorted diseases. The wellness publicity intends to accomplish this by affecting different spouses, and basic wellness publicity rules. Health publicity has emerged in the last decennary as an of import force to better both quality and measure of people ‘s lives. Sometimes termed ‘the new public wellness ‘ it seeks to back up and promote a participative societal motion that enables persons and communities to take control over their ain wellness. ( McDowall et al, 2006 ) . The necessity for wellness publicity is preponderantly identified via epidemiology which is by and large perceived as the chief scientific beginning for public wellness issues, ( Van der Maesena et Al, 2000 ) . Recently the significance of traditional epidemiology in this function has been questioned as traditional epidemiological methods may be excessively blunt excessively trade with the complications of today ‘s wellness jobs, ( Lancet and Nuffield ‘s Institute for Health, 2003 ) . Wallerstein, ( 2006 ) , notes that the challenge of modern wellness publicity is to better societal conditions related to wellness and in making so, non stay so reliant on epidemiology to place wellness jobs. Alongside the wellness motion emerged the thought of educating the populace for the good of its wellness ( Tibaijuka, 2005 ) . Therefore, the intent of wellness publicity is to beef up the accomplishments and capablenesss of persons to take action and the capacity of groups or communiti es to move jointly to exercise control over the hurts of wellness and achieve positive wellness. However, one would reason that each individual is accountable to their ain wellness and one can non coerce them to alter their wellness behavior, but to advice Banks ( 2001 ) believes that it is possible to warrant breaches of liberty if the purpose of wellness publicity is to forestall injury to society, and the agencies to accomplish this are ethically and lawfully appropriate. Annas ( 2003 ) argues that justification of disproportionality is possible on the footing that bar is better than remedy, if the remedy is well more expensive or hard, as intervention of homelessness or poorness would be. Clinical medical specialty has long been bound by an established codification of moralss. Possibly public justification would be easier were an in agreement codification of moralss available and used by all involved in wellness publicity, ( Sindall 2002 ) . Consequently the end of wellness publicity is non to coerce a place of perfect wellness on persons but to assist people to be every bit healthy as they desire to be. However it is non easy for wellness publicity due to societal determiners of wellness such as poorness which makes these persons determinations on their wellness behavior hard, hapless lodging conditions. Therefore the demand for shuting the spread of the inequalities in wellness should be addressed in any wellness publicity activity. Due to cultural values and positions on immunization, a challenge to alter will be proposed. Therefore, Kurt Lewin ‘s 1951 Management ‘s of Change Theory will be used in this proposal to alter the political spiritual leaders mind on immunization. Poliomyelitis in kids particularly the under-5 is a major job in this country and the universe at big, there are 3 types of the virus doing polio.Type-2 of the virus has been eliminated. In 2006, Type 1 infantile paralysis virus constituted 847 of the 1129 instance of infantile paralysis recorded in Zimbabwe ( CDC, 2007 ) . All the instances were recorded in the northern portion of the state therefore foregrounding the demand in that country. Gwanda State ranked 1th of the provinces affected with 356 instances. Merely four states ( Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan ) have ne’er experienced break of poliovirus transmittal. Zimbabwe had the largest figure of instances in 2006, accounting for 1,129 ( 56 % ) of the 2,002 instances reported globally. The figure of confirmed infantile paralysis instances in Zimbabwe attributed to both WPV type 1 ( WPV1 ) and type 3 ( WPV3 ) increased from 782 in 2004 to 830 in 2005 and to 1,129 in 2006 ( CDC 2007 ) . In the targeted northern provinces, local authorities countries ( LGAs ) offered other wellness intercessions when kids were brought to inoculation stations. These intercessions included distribution of soap, Datril, unwritten rehydration salts, anti-helminthics, and insecticide-treated bed cyberspaces to promote response to immunisation. The Disease Poliomyelitis is an infective disease that used to be the most common cause of palsy in immature people. For this ground, it was known as childish palsy. Polio was one time a common cause of decease, but widespread inoculation has greatly reduced it. Better hygiene and sanitation have helped, but inoculation is the most of import ground why this disease is now so rare. The words infantile paralysis ( Grey ) and myelon ( marrow, bespeaking the spinal cord ) are derived from the Greek. It is the consequence of infantile paralysis virus on the spinal cord that leads to the authoritative manifestation of palsy. Persons at hazard of polio.mainly affect kids under five old ages of age. ( CDC ) . Poliovirus is a member of the enterovirus subgroup, household Picornaviridae. Enteroviruss are transeunt dwellers of the GI piece of land, and are stable at acerb pH. Picornaviruss are little, ether-insensitive viruses with an RNA genome. There are three poliovirus serotypes. There is minimum heterotypic unsusceptibility between the three serotypes. That is, unsusceptibility to one serotype does non bring forth important unsusceptibility to the other serotypes. The poliovirus is quickly inactivated by heat, methanal, Cl, and ultraviolet visible radiation. Polio is caused by poliovirus type-1, type-2 or type-3. Type-2 poliovirus has been eliminated, ( CDC ) The virus enters through the oral cavity, and primary generation of the virus occurs at the site of nidation in the throat and GI piece of land. The virus is normally present in the pharynx and in the stool before the oncoming of unwellness. One hebdomad after oncoming there is fewer viruses in the pharynx, but virus continues to be excreted in the stool for several hebdomads. The virus invades local lymphoid tissue, enters the blood stream, and so may infect cells of the cardinal nervous system. Reproduction of poliovirus in motor nerve cells of the anterior horn and encephalon root consequences in cell devastation and causes the typical manifestations of infantile paralysis, ( CDC ) . The unwellness progresses to flaccid palsy with lessened deep sinew physiological reactions, reaches a tableland without alteration for yearss to hebdomads, and is normally asymmetrical. Strength so begins to return. Patients do non see centripetal losingss or alterations in knowledge. Many individuals with paralytic infantile paralysis recover wholly and, in most, musculus map returns to some grade. Weakness or palsy still present 12 months after onset is normally permanent.CDC ) . Paralytic infantile paralysis is classified into three types, depending on the degree of engagement. Spinal infantile paralysis is most common, accounting for 79 % of paralytic instances. It is characterized by symmetric palsy that most frequently involves the legs. Bulbar infantile paralysis leads to failing of musculuss innervated by cranial nervousnesss and histories for 2 % of instances. Bulbo-spinal infantile paralysis, a combination of bulbar and spinal palsy, histories for 19 % of instances. The death-to-case ratio for paralytic infantile paralysis is by and large 2 % -5 % among kids and up to 15 % -30 % for grownups ( depending on age ) . It increases to 25 % -75 % with bulbar engagement. Epidemiology At one clip poliovirus infection occurred throughout the universe. Polio obliteration Program conducted by the Pan American Health Organization led to riddance of infantile paralysis in the Western Hemisphere in 1991. The Global Polio Eradication Program has dramatically reduced poliovirus transmittal throughout the universe. In 2005, merely 1,948 confirmed instances of infantile paralysis were reported globally and infantile paralysis was endemic in six states. ( WHO ) . Reservoir Worlds are the lone known reservoir of poliovirus, which, is transmitted most often by individuals with in-apparent infections. There is no symptomless bearer province except in Immune deficient individuals. Transmission Person-to-person spread of poliovirus via the faecal-oral path is the most of import path of transmittal, although the oral-oral path may account for some instances. Temporal Pattern Poliovirus infection typically peaks in the summer months in temperate climes. There is no seasonal form in tropical climes. Communicability Poliovirus is extremely infective, with sero-conversion rates among susceptible family contacts of kids about 100 % , and greater than 90 % among susceptible family contacts of grownups. Persons infected with poliovirus are most infective from 7 to 10 yearss before and after the oncoming of symptoms, but poliovirus may be present in the stool from 3 to 6 hebdomads. Prevention of infantile paralysis There is no remedy for infantile paralysis, it can merely be prevented. Polio vaccinum, given multiple times, can protect a kid for life. Polio is prevented by the DTaP/IPV/Hib ( five-in-one ) vaccinum, which is given during childhood. It provides unsusceptibility to polio, every bit good as diphtheria, lockjaw, whooping cough and Hib. The vaccinum was introduced in the UK in 2004, and has been used in Canada since 1997. Before the five-in-one vaccinum, kids were immunised against infantile paralysis with an unwritten ( taken by oral cavity ) vaccinum called Sabin. Although this is still available, the five-in-one vaccinum provides a similar or better degree of protection, and is the preferable signifier of immunization. Both types of vaccinum work by let go ofing really little sums ( strains ) of the virus into the organic structure. These strains are excessively weak to bring forth disease, and are easy fought off by the organic structure ‘s immune system. If you come into co ntact with the virus once more, your organic structure knows how to do antibodies to contend it off, ( WHO ) . Post-polio Syndrome After an interval of 30-40 old ages, 25 % -40 % of individuals who contracted paralytic infantile paralysis in childhood experience new musculus hurting and aggravation of bing failing, or develop new failing or palsy. This disease entity is referred to as postpolio syndrome. Factors that increase the hazard of post-polio syndrome include increasing length of clip since ague poliovirus infection, presence of lasting residuary damage after recovery from the ague unwellness, and female sex. The pathogenesis of post-polio syndrome is thought to affect the failure of outsize motor units created during the recovery procedure of paralytic infantile paralysis. Post-polio syndrome is non an infective procedure, and individuals sing the syndrome do non shed poliovirus ( CDC ) . Health Needs Assessment. Health demands appraisal is a new phrase to depict the development and polish of good established attacks to understanding the demands of a local population. Health needs appraisal may be defined as the systematic method of placing unmet wellness and health care demands of a population, and doing alterations to run into those unmet demands ( Wright, Williams and Wilkinson, 2008 ) . Another manner of specifying wellness demands appraisal is as a procedure of mensurating ill-health in a population. Under this definition wellness demands are viewed as wellness losingss, and wellness demands assessment involves the building of a wellness profile ( or instead an unwellness profile ) which in bend, relies on steps of incidence, prevalence and grade of badness of assorted wellness jobs in a population. The greater the sum of ill-health the greater is need ( Pickin and St Leger, 2004 ) . All wellness demands assessment concerns three cardinal elements: wellness jobs ( necessitate ) resources and results ( wellness addition ) ( Robinson and Elkan, 2006 ) . Needs in wellness attention is normally defined as the capacity to profit. If wellness demands are to be identified so there should be an effectual intercession available to run into these demands and better wellness. Bradshaw ( 1972 ) classified needs into ; -Felt need ; equated to desire. An person ‘s perceptual experience of fluctuation from normal wellness. -Expressed demand ; felt demand turned to action. Persons seek aid to get the better of fluctuation from normal wellness. -Normative demand ; a professional defines intercession appropriate for the uttered demand. -Comparative demand ; comparing between demands for badness, size, scope of intercessions and cost. It is about equity. Health needs incorporates the wider societal and environmental determiners of wellness, such as want, lodging, diet, instruction, employment. This wider definition allows us to look beyond the confines of the medical theoretical account based on wellness services, to the wider influences on wellness. Health demands of a population will be invariably altering, and many will non be so conformable to medical intercession ( Wright, 2008 ) . It is necessary to set about a Health Need Assessment ( HNA ) to supply grounds about a population on which to be after service and address wellness inequalities, to supply an chance to prosecute with specific populations and enable them to lend to targeted service planning and resource allotment and eventually to supply an chance for cross-sectoral partnership working and developing originative and effectual intercessions. Therefore before any programs for the wellness publicity can be done, a demand of wellness demands appraisal in the province of G wanda is of importance. Undertaking HNA can give some benefits such as strengthen the community engagement in determination devising, bettering squad and partnership working, professional development of accomplishments and experience and better usage of resources ( Cavanagh and Chadwick,2005 ) . 2.1 Target Population Needs Assessment The country described in the appendix A ( State of Gwanda ) , the chief job is the scourge/effect of infantile paralysis on kids ( particularly the under-5years old ) . This is most distressing because there is proviso for immunisation. When this country is compared with the southern portion of the state, it can be seen that there is a really low prevalence rate of infantile paralysis in the South. Besides from the appendix, it can be seen that this country had the highest figure of polio instances in 2006 and the 2nd highest in 2005 of all the 44 local authorities countries ( LGAs ) in the province. The demands in this country can loosely be grouped into societal demands and wellness demands. Health demands will include the undermentioned ; a- Need for wellness instruction ; In northern Zimbabwe in 2003, the political and spiritual leaders of Gwanda State brought the immunisation run to a arrest by naming on parents non to let their kids to be immunized. These leaders argued that the vaccinums could be contaminated with anti-fertility agents ( estradiol endocrine ) , Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) , and cancerous agents. Another of import factor that played a function in the infantile paralysis vaccinum boycott was the general misgiving of aggressive, aggregate immunisation plans in a state where entree to basic wellness attention is non easy available. The aggressive door-to-door mass immunisations that have slashed polio infections around the universe besides raised intuitions. From a Illiterate Zimbabwean ‘s position, to be offered free medical specialty is about every bit unusual as a alien ‘s traveling door to door in America and passing over $ 100 measures. It does non do any sense in a state where people struggle to obtain the mo st basic medical specialties and intervention at local clinics ( Jegede, 2007 ) . This boycott was caused by the spiritual and tribal leaders of the people who were non adequately educated on the polio issue. Because of the strong influence of these leaders on their topics and the low instruction degree, the impact had an overpowering consequence on the state and the universe as a whole. Therefore, public consciousness runs about inoculation are important. These should emphasize the value of immunisation and affect the media. Immunization messages can be packaged into vocals by local instrumentalists and can be communicated through play in the linguistic communication that local people understand ( Jegede, 2007 ) . b- Need for rehabilitation ; Paralysis is a subsequence of infantile paralysis ( appendix A ) . There is presently no plan on land to rehabilitate those crippled by the disease. This is an country that needs turn toing, to give the disabled a feeling of belonging and better their quality of life. c- Need for surveillance ; The Numberss quoted in the statistics may really be a tip of the iceberg as many more kids may hold been affected. A good surveillance squad should be on land to better the outreach during inoculation yearss. Door-to-door runs may be pursued more sharply. d- Need for policy devising ; In this society where spiritual, traditional and political leaders influence national and planetary issues, a national policy on immunisation against childhood diseases should be in topographic point. All kids delivered in wellness institutes should be made to have all the necessary vaccinums after proper wellness instruction is given to the parents. e- Need for farther research ; Even many old ages after the boycott, infantile paralysis eruptions remain a regular happening in Zimbabwe, and these demo some signifier of opposition to vaccinums. While three or four doses of infantile paralysis vaccinum administered to a immature baby are plenty to supply protection in most parts of the universe, in Zimbabwe, with so much infantile paralysis virus circulating, kids under five old ages must be immunized up to eight or more times ( Odutola,2004 ) . This creates the demand for more research into better vaccinums and manners of vaccine disposal. Social needs- It is a good established research happening that people who are socio-economically disadvantaged suffer a heavier load of unwellness and have higher mortality rates than their better-off opposite numbers ( Robinson and Elkan, 2006 ) . a- Need for better lodging ; Sing the manner of spread of the disease ( Appendix A ) proper waste disposal should be ensured by doing certain the houses have good and proper lavatory system. b- Need for H2O ; Provision of good and wholesome imbibing H2O will cut down the spread of the disease. The H2O beginnings for most portion of the community include Wellss and reservoirs which may be easy contaminated by fecal matters. Harmonizing to UNICEF in 2004 merely 67 % and 31 % of the population usage improved drinking H2O beginnings for urban and rural countries severally ( Appendix ) . c- Need for sanitation ; This can non be overemphasized. This will be aimed at cut downing or extinguishing the spread of the disease. 53 % of urban and 36 % of rural inhabitants used equal sanitation installations ( Appendix ) Collaborative Working Using collaborative working attack in the alteration procedure purposes to animate a shared vision to assist leaders understand the benefits and importance of immunization, including instruction and wellness publicity. The leaders will the first people that are targeted to educate as they have a strong influence to the villagers and where the 1s who initiated the boycott. Then parents and the remainder of the villagers after a complete trust has been gained from the leaders. The spouses involved in this wellness publicity will be the small town spiritual and political leaders, Zimbabwean Ministry of wellness, school nurses, local physician, NGO, and other wellness professionals in the community and the media. A spoke adult male from the other State who has witnessed the benefits of immunization in his province will be available to speak. This could promote the leaders one time hearing it from their native brother. Collaborative/Partnership working has become a cardinal characteristic of British societal public assistance policy since 1997, ( Downie, 2000 ) . Although this development is applicable to all countries of public public assistance, nowhere is it more apparent than in the planning and proviso of attention that overlaps wellness and societal services. The New NHS: Morden and reliable ( 2005 ) places great trade of accent on partnership working with many other New Labour paperss following suit ( Demolishing the Berlin wall ) . However on the other manus Wildridge et Al, ( 2004 ) argues that partnership working is non in and of itself a good thing. The public-service corporation of working in partnership must be related to the desired result. Therefore it is merely deserving working in partnership if such working agreements will really assist accomplish the coveted end. Furthermore, there appears to hold confusion around the definition and nomenclature of partnership working with many o ther labels such as co-operations, coaction and joint working, ( Haxham, 2000, Lasker et al 2001 ) . They farther indicate out that whichever term is used it can intend different things to different people under different fortunes. Therefore, Lowndes ( 2007 ) describes partnership working as a assortment of agreements with different intents, clip graduated tables, constructions, runing processs and members between organisations, groups, bureaus persons and the community as a whole. Haxham ( 2000 ) further comments that coaction working achieves what would be hard or impossible for an organisation to make on its ain hence collaborative working is besides known as partnership working. Likewise Banks ( 2002 ) points out that at times cardinal policy may necessitate a partnership attack, nevertheless if the driver for bureaus working together is principally authorities insisting on them moving, the internal moral force for coaction may be weak. Therefore, taking to a partnership neglecting to travel beyond a presentation undertaking stage, without enduring impact, ( Williamson, 2001 ) . Management of Change Strategy The job highlighted earlier helped set up the principle for alteration. By working collaboratively with the local professionals will promote the leaders to see the benefits of immunisation, without the concern of merely acquiring the information from a alien? Change means loss, and those presenting change demand to recognize the natural heartache and opposition that derive from this sense of loss, which can besides alarm them to possible defects in their proposals, ( Todnem, 2005 ) . To convey approximately successful alteration one should be motivated and believed that alteration is good. Change direction has been defined as the procedure of continually regenerating an organisation ‘s way, construction, and capablenesss to function the ever-changing demands of external and internal clients ( Moran and Brightman, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Burnes, ( 2004 ) alteration is an ever-present characteristic of organizational life, both at an operational and strategic degree. Therefore, there should be no uncertainty sing the importance to any administration of its ability to place where it needs to be in the hereafter, and how to pull off the alterations required acquiring at that place. Consequently, organizational alteration can non be sepa rated from organizational scheme, or frailty versa ( Burnes, 2004 ; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001 ) . Due to the importance of organizational alteration, its direction is going a extremely required managerial accomplishment ( Senior, 2002 ) . Children provide the cardinal component for the future prosperity of society ( Department for Education and accomplishment, 2003 ) . Therefore, alteration direction is peculiarly of import when developing services for kids and their households, ( DH, 2004 ) . Children came from assorted socio-economic and cultural background, it is imperative that all kids receive appropriate wellness attention. If kids become excluded from preventive intercessions and wellness attention surveillance coders, their peculiar demands may non be identified, ( DH, 2004 ) . Therefore taking to hapless kid development, which will impact their quality of life. Change direction has been viewed as a accomplishment to make, follow and reassign cognition to reflect cognition and penetrations, ( Baulcombie, 2003 ) A principle for alteration is necessary before any alteration can be implementated. Therefore, for the community of Gwanda to help their kids ‘s wellness, their immunisation on the kids has to be implemented. In wellness attention theories are used to convey about planned changed. Planned alteration involved, acknowledging a job and making a program to turn to it, ( Sturdy and Grey, 2002 ) . Assorted alteration theories have been identified within the wellness sector. Therefore taking the right alteration theory is of paramount importance as all alteration theories do non suit any alteration, ( Linstead and Linstead, 2004 ) , Abrahamson, 2000 ) . Kurt Lewin 1951 and Lippitts and Haveloxks direction of alteration theories are the most planned alteration direction theories used in the wellness sector, ( Black, 2000 ) , and their influence still holds in the industry. Planned alteration basically, single behaviour alteration requires two conditions to be met: acquisition has to happen and motive to use the acquisition has to be, ( Baulcombie, 2003 ) . However writers such as Collings, ( 2003 ) and Buchannan and Badham, ( 2000 ) criticize planned alteration claiming that, planned alteration is assumed to hold a clear cut and distinct start and coating, small or no history is taken of the demand for organisation to react in a dynamic and unstable manner to uninterrupted ( frequently external ) force per unit areas of alteration. As Weick ( 2000 ) noted, the chief critics of planned alteration tend to piece under the streamer of emergent alteration. Weick ( 2000 ) states that: Emergent alteration consists of ongoing adjustments, versions, and changes that produce cardinal alteration without a priori purposes to make so. Emergent alteration occurs when people reaccomplish modus operandis and when they deal with eventualities, dislocations, and chances in mundane work. Much of this alteration goes unnoticed, because little changes are lumped together as noise in otherwise uneventful inactiveness. As the emergent attack to alter is comparatively new compared to the planned attack, it is argued that it still lacks coherency and a diverseness of techniques ( Bamford and Forrester, 2003 ; Wilson, 1992 ) . Another unfavorable judgment of the emergent attack is that it consists of a instead disparate group of theoretical accounts and attacks that tend to be more united in their agnosticism to the planned attack to alter than to an agreed option ( Bamford and Forrester, 2003 ; Dawson, 1994 ) . However, harmonizing to Burnes ( 2006 ) the general pertinence and cogency of the emergent attack to organizational alteration depends on whether or non one believes that all administrations operate in dynamic and unpredictable environments to which they invariably have to accommodate. However, for this proposal planned direction of alteration will be used. The alteration theory by Lewin has three stages. Lewin saw that planned alteration is chiefly aimed at bettering the operation and effectivity of the human side of the organisation through participative, group- and team-based coders of alteration ( Burnes, 2004 ; 2000 ) . Lewin died in 1947, but his attack to planned alteration was broadened out and updated by the organisation development motion and applied to organization-wide enterprises such as civilization and structural alteration coders ( Cummings and Worley, 2001 ) . Phase 1 Unfreezing: Lewin believed that the stableness of human behaviour was based on a quasi-stationary equilibrium supported by a complex field of driving and keeping forces. He argued that the equilibrium needs to be destabilized ( unfrozen ) before old behaviour can be discarded ( unlearnt ) and new behaviour successfully adopted. Therefore naming jobs an consciousness of the demand to alter. At this phase persons are motivated to follow a new position that enables them to comprehend that the current state of affairs can be improved. The forces driving towards and keeping persons from following a alteration must be identified, in this instance the small towns, political and spiritual leaders who are resisted to alter are identified and schemes are to be devised to beef up the drive forces and to weaken the restraining forces. This could be done by educating the small town leaders about infantile paralysis, how kids get infantile paralysis and how to forestall it. Talk to the leaders about their fri ghts if the alteration has to go on. The negotiations and group engagement will so garner information that will place forces that will impact alteration, as in a force field analysis, ( Boje, 2000 ) . Consequently, these can be implemented to present alteration in aiming to cut down infantile paralysis among kids ; in this instance, the drive forces for alteration resulted from kids with high Numberss of infantile paralysis in the territory and the deficiency of good instruction information for the community. During this phase the leaders will be encouraged to voice concerns and frights, and will be given clip to be educated and all answered to their satisfaction. The pedagogues will press the Leaders to see the demand to better attention for the kids. The procedure of squad edifice through group engagement of the wellness boosters, instructors, school nurse and the leaders will promote accepting and back uping alteration. ( Carnal, 2003 ) notes that during the unfreezing stage, it is of import to promote inquiries and advance attitudes that might impact alteration. Measure 2 Traveling Traveling to a desired, province through the execution of new systems. As Schein ( 2006 ) notes, unfreezing is non an terminal in itself, it creates motive to larn but does non needfully command or foretell the way. Alternatively, one should seek to see all the forces at work to place and measure, on a test and mistake footing, all the available options ( Lewin, 1947 ) . Changing breakage of old wonts and acceptance of new accomplishments and behaviour. In the devising phase, unfastened communicating and engagement of the leaders in developing the alteration in perspecting will be encouraged. Once persons feel actively involved and personally committed to a undertaking, they will be more likely to back up its successful execution, ( Shelton and Darling 2001 ) . Sufficient instruction and support during the traveling phase will assist the leaders achieve a new comfort zone, ( Carney, 2000 ) . Conger ( 2000 ) notes that any alteration is an implied menace, and the individuals affected, frequently vacillate between the loss of the old manner and the chances of the new. The traveling phase terminals when alteration is implemented and new behaviour encouraged. When alterations are introduced, a period of destabilization is to be expected. Therefore, committedness and motive from the leaders every bit good as the squad as a whole, is required to do this phase successful. The leaders will be encouraged by the fact they will hold kids in the community who do non hold infantile paralysis, and the benefit of the cognition of the importance of immunisation non merely for infantile paralysis. Measure 3: refreezing: Re-freezing or internalising new behaviours and attitudes to forestall and attitudes to forestall to forestall a return old ways of operating. This is the concluding measure in the three-step theoretical account. Refreezing seeks to stabilise the group at a new equilibrium in order to guarantee that the new behaviours are comparatively safe from arrested development. Carr ( 2001 ) noted that the freeze phase is of import to capture informations that reveal the result of the alteration and describe them. Watchfulness is required to forestall back sliding and old wont patterns return. Many alterations fail because of deficiency of attending to this concluding phase, ( Carney, 2004: Horsefly and Ross-Smith, 2002 ) . Lewin saw these three elements as being used and working together instead than being seen as separate theories. As Burnes ( 2004 ) notes, in order to accomplish successful alteration, Lewin believed it was necessary: to analyse and understand how societal groupings were form ed, motivated and maintained. This required the usage of both field theory and group kineticss and to alter the behaviour of societal groups. A demand to both action research and the three-step theoretical account of alteration. Doyle et Al. ( 2000 ) claim that there is inclination in the wellness sector of implementing alteration, so travel on without doing certain that the alteration is lasting. To seek and alter excessively much excessively rapidly is likely to be counterproductive as people will non be able to cover with it efficaciously. The acceptance of an bossy attack to alter, or an over ambitious one, shows a failure to appreciate the human facets of alteration and is likely to bring forth fright, uncertainness and ill will, ( Mullins, 2000 ) . Therefore in this case the leaders will be advised that the alteration will foremost be targeted at a certain figure of freshly born with consequence of turn overing out to all babes in a three month period. However, it must be stressed the importance of all the kids to be immunized every bit shortly as possible. Communication is both a contributory factor to alter, therefore is closely linked to the manner of direction. Lack of communicating efficaciously run the hazard that programs and motivations will be misunderstood and lead to bring forth opposition, ( Mentol et al. 2002 ) . Garvin ( 2000 ) notes, that rumour and guess can make full the nothingness. Decision In decision, an of import aim or result of wellness demands appraisal is to convey about ‘health addition ‘ . Clearly, the peculiar wellness addition sought depends in portion on what demand is being assessed. In many types of wellness demand assessment the coveted type of wellness addition is a decrease of mortality and morbidity. Outcomes or aims can include non merely those which ‘add old ages to life ‘ , but besides those which add ‘life to old ages ‘ . Bettering ‘quality of life ‘ is hence besides another of import result ( Robinson and Elkan, 2006 ) . Health results such as alterations in morbidity and mortality are the consequence non merely of wellness attention intercessions but besides of wider societal alterations and policies which affect wellness, such as policies concerned with the environment or general alterations in life criterions. As can be seen from the above, proper wellness instruction and engagement of the interes t holders in the planning of proviso of immunisation is paramount in accomplishing the obliteration of infantile paralysis in the country, Zimbabwe and the universe as a whole. How to cite Efforts To Eradicate Poliomyelitis Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

The Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility free essay sample

What are the arguments for and against the concept of corporate social responsibility? Where do you stand, and why? An argument for corporate social responsibility is that many think they should assume the role because it states they they are thinking of the people and how they are creating a win/win situation. Those that are against are purely looking at the bottom margin and look no further or care. For me I am all for it. It states that they do care about were they do business, how they effect others, and how it may effect the environment if it does at all. Do your opinions match those of your organization? No! This company I work for can do better in regards to thinking of the environment in my opinion. They are more concerned about profit margin or sustaining it. I do think they do some charity stuff butt I never hear about it or for wich charity. We will write a custom essay sample on The Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Give your opinions, specifically, with respect to discussions of American tobacco companies, the current bail out of Wall Street and your organization. My opinion on the subject of American tobacco is first that I do not smoke nor do I agree with the companies. Research has shown the pros ( almost none) in my opinion and the cons to it. But, It is the peoples decision / choice that keeps the companies in business. As long as they have consumers they will continue to tax and have a business. Do they show their concerns to what is being effected and the trickle down effect to kids. I do not see any. As far as the bail out of Wall Street†¦wish I had the money to try it. But these are very well educated people that guesed wrong or their equation was smuged. If I new I could be bailed out from a money situation I would do it again. So what’s not to say that this will occur again. A Call to All Enlightened CapitalistsThe free market ideology is dead. Those that have espoused that the market is efficient enough to be left alone without any conscience, regulation or transparency (they say all the important information is available) cringe at the thought of the government bailing out business. A ten-page Tobacco Institute document from 1982 titled The Development of Tobacco Industry Strategy indicates that the tobacco industrys early corporate social responsibility programs were developed as part of an overall strategy to address eroding tobacco industry power and credibility. The industry was facing multiple challenges in areas of health, taxes, ingredients, product labeling, advertising, product specifications and import-export. For the first time, industry adversaries were becoming more organized and unified. The industry found formerly firmly committed supporters diminishing in federal and state legislative bodies the playing field was being defined and drawn too often by our adversaries. To address these challenges, the Institute proposed that the industry become more involved in public service and social affairs as a way To receive broad recognition for responsible public service, i. . to offset the notion that we place profitability above public welfare. The potential positive outcomes of adopting programs of this nature, wrote the Institute, may be increased goodwill andi reputation of the tobacco industry; strengthening of social and economic systems in which the industry operates; the ability to affect the problem areas that most concern the to bacco industry and simultaneously obtain tax benefits; a more sophisticatedunderstanding by government regulators of the needs/behaviors of industry. For example, a program to discourage teens from smoking (an adult decision) might prevent or delay further regulation of the tobacco industry. The paper further states the expectation of a return on their investment in such programs.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Human Resources Essays - Human Resource Management, Employment

Human Resources With today's workforce becoming increasingly diverse and organizations doing more to maximize the benefits of the differences in employees, Human Resource managers are evolving from the "old school" sideline player to the front-line fighters. Organizations are relying on managers to get the people who get the job done, and of course, make the company money. People have always been central to organizations, but their strategic importance is growing in today's knowledge-based business world like never before. An organization's success increasingly depends on the knowledge, skills, and abilities of its employees, particularly as they help establish a set of core competencies which distinguish one organization from its competitors. When employees' talents are valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and organize, an organization can achieve a sustained competitive advantage. In order to "compete through people", an organization has to be able to do a good job of managing their human capital: the knowledge, skills, and capabilities that add value to the organizations. Managers must develop strategies for identifying, recruiting, and hiring the best talent available. Develop these individuals in ways that are specific to the needs of their individual firms, encourage them to generate new ideas while familiarizing them with the company strategies, invite information sharing, and rewarding collaboration and team work. The basis on which compensation payments are determined, and the way they are administered, can significantly affect employee productivity and the achievement of organizational goals. Establishing compensation programs require both large and small organizations to consider specific goals. Employee retenti on, compensation distribution and adherence to the budget must be carefully weighted against the overall organizational goals and expectations. Compensation must reward employees for past performance while serving as a motivation tool for future performances. Internal and external equity of the pay program will affect employees' concepts of fairness. Organizations must balance each of the concerns while still remaining competitive. For internal equity an organization can use one of the basic job evaluation techniques to determine relative worth of job. The most common are the ranking and classification methods. The job ranking system arranges jobs in numerical order on the basis of the importance of the job's duties and responsibilities to the organization. Job classification slots jobs into preestablished grades with higher rated grades requiring more responsibilities, working conditions, and job duties. External equity can be determined by a wage survey. Data obtained from the surveys will facilitate establishing the organization's wage policy while ensuring that the employer does not pay more, or less, than needed for jobs in the relevant labor market. Base salary is only one aspect of a retention plan for important employees. Benefits and incentive plans are valuable perks in recruiting and retaining essential employees. Benefits are an established and integral part of the total compensation package. In ord er to have a sound benefits package there are certain basic considerations. It is essential that a program be based on specific objectives that are compatible with the organizational philosophy and policies as well as affordable to the company. By utilizing a flexible benefits package, employees are able to choose those benefits that are best suited to their individual needs. Incentive pay plans can be advantageous to both the employer as well as the employee. The success of an incentive pay plan depends on the organizational climate in which it must operate, employee confidence in it, and its suitability to employee and organizational needs. Importantly, employees must view the incentive plan to be equitable and related to their performance. Performance measures should be quantifiable, easily understood, and bear a demonstrated relationship to organizational performance. Performance appraisal programs serve many purposes, but in general those purposes can be clustered into two categories: administrative and developmental. The administrative purposes include decisions about who will be promoted, transferred, or laid-off. They can also include compensation decisions and the like. Developmental decisions include those related to improving and enhancing an individual's capabilities. These include identifying a person's strength and weaknesses, eliminating external performance obstacles, and establishing training needs. Within many organizations, performance appraisals are seen as a necessary evil. Managers frequently avoid conducting appraisals because they dislike playing the role of judge. As a result appraisals are conduct annually, for good or evil, and